Study Sheet for Test 4


Chapter 10—Interest Groups and Lobbying


10.1 Interest Groups Defined

Interest Groups v. Political Parties

What are Interest Groups?


    Membership Organizations

    In-house lobbyist

    Contract lobbyist

    Legislative liaison

    Industry associations

    Volunteer lobbyists

    Inside v. Outside Lobbying

Interest Group Functions

    Monitor Government

    Increase Political participation

    Focus and specialization

Public v. Private Interest Groups

    Particularized benefits

    Public/Collective goods


10.2 Collective Action and Interest Group Formation

Collective Action and Free Riding

    The Logic of Collective Action by Mancur Olson

    Free Rider problem

        Material Incentives

        Solidary Incentives

        Purposive Incentives

        Force (required memberships)

    Disturbance Theory and Collective Action


10.3 Interest Groups as Political Participation

Group Participation as Civic Engagement

    Grassroots Movements v. Astroturf Movement

        **Linkage Institution**


        Monitoring the Government

Trends in Public Interest Group Formation and Activity

    Increase in number

        New Interests


        Increased Specialization


        Professionalization of Lobbying

How Representative is the Interest Group System?

    Efficacy (rich v. poor)

    Minority v. Majority participation


    Pluralism v. Elite Critique

    Iron Triangles

    Issue Networks



10.4 Pathways of Interest Group Influence

Influence In Elections

    Ratings/Report Cards


    PACs and Super PACs

Influencing Governmental Policy

    Voting Cues

    Targeting relevant committee members

    Targeting members on the floor/in conference committee

    Influencing executive branch enforcers

    Judicial lobbying (amicus briefs)


10.5 Free Speech and the Regulation of Interest Groups

Interest Groups and Free Speech

    1971 Federal Election Campaign Act

    Buckley v. Valeo (1976)

    Soft Money

    Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002

    Citizens United v. FEC (2010)

    McCutcheon v. FEC (2014)

Regulating Lobbying and Interest Group Activity

    1995 Lobbying Disclosure Act

    Executive Order 13490

    Honest Leadership and Open Government Act

    Revolving Door Laws




Chapter 11Congress


11.1 The Institutional Design of Congress

The Great Compromise and the Basics of Bicameralism

    Virginia Plan

    New Jersey Plan

    Connecticut Compromise

    Need for identical bills

Senate Representation and House Apportionment

    17th Amendment

    Census count

        Apportionment (constituency size)



            Majority-Minority Districts

Congressional Powers




    Article I, Section 8 Powers

    Oversight of the Executive Branch

    Necessary and Proper Clause

    Historical Decline in the Power of Congress


11.2 Congressional Elections

Understanding the House and Senate

    Requirements (Age, Residency, etc)

    Lack of Term Limits--US Term Limits v. Thornton (1995)

    Structural Differences

Congressional Campaign Funding

    **Dialing for Dollars**

    Growth of Campaign Finance laws

    More details about what is and is not permissible

Incumbency Effects

    Advantages of Incumbents

Local and National Elections

    "All Politics is Local"

    Surge-and-Decline Theory

    National issues driving elections?


11.3 Congressional Representation

Types of Representation: Looking out for Constituents


    Delegate v. Trustee

    "Politico" Model

Descriptive Representation

    Rise of Minority and Female Members of Congress

Representing Constituents

    Pork-barrel politics

    Ear-marks (currently illegal)

Collective Representation and Congressional Approval

    Low popularity of Congress


11.4 House and Senate Organizations

Party Leadership

    House of Representatives

        Speaker of the House

        Minority Leader

        Majority Leader



        The Vice-President, President of the Senate

        President pro tempore

        Minority Leader

        Majority Leader


The Committee System

    Standing Committees

    Select Committees

    Joint Committees

    Conference Committees

    Power of the Chairs

        **Subpoena power**


11.5 The Legislative Process

Classic Legislative Process

    Revenue Bills start in the House

    Other bills can start in either chamber

    Committee assignment (Role of the Parliamentarian)


        Markup session

        House Rules Committee

    Passage through the Senate

        The Filibuster



    Conference Committee

    Presidential Signature


        Veto Override

Modern Legislation is Different

    1974 Budget Impoundment and Control Act

    Rise of Omnibus Bills

    Expanded Influence of Party Leadership

    **Discharge Petitions**

    Multiple Referrals

    Modern Filibuster


Chapter 12The Presidency


Inventing the Presidency

Weakness of the Articles

Historical Debates

Development of the Electoral College

    Original view of electors as autonomous, eclipsed by the rise of political parties

    Passage of the 12th Amendment

    Possibility of a Faithless Elector

    Underdevelopment of the role of the Vice-President

Requirements (Natural Birth, etc)

Impeachment Process

    Impeachment in the House

    Trial in the Senate

        2/3 needed for Removal

Evolving Executive Branch

    Historical Examples

    Executive Privilege

    Executive Orders

    Executive Agreements


12.2 The Presidential Election Process

Selecting the Candidate: The Party Process



    Primary Elections

        Rise of Ideologically Extreme Candidates?

        Power for early states

        "Super Tuesday" "Super Saturday"

    Decline in the importance of the National Convention

Electing the President: The General Election

    The Electoral College

        Possible Reform?


    Acceptance or refusal of Public Funding


12.3 Organizing to Govern

Transition and Appointments

    Transition Team

    The Cabinet

        "Inner" Cabinet

        Senate Confirmation Process

        **Reasons why the President often does not rely on the Cabinet for advice**

    Senate Approval of Non-Cabinet Officials

    Nomination of Judges

    The Executive Office of the President (EOP)

        Office of Management and Budget

            Preparing the President's Budget

            Central Clearance

        Presidential Staff (the West Wing)

    The Vice President

Forging an Agenda

    First 100 days

    "Political Time"


12.4 The Public Presidency

The Shaping of the Modern Presidency

    Originally limited contact with the public

        Power through Patronage and Appointments

    FDR and Radio

    Television and JFK and Reagan

    **Social Media and Obama and Trump**

Going Public

    Does it work?

    Is it obselete?

The First Lady

    Eleanor Roosevelt

    Betty Ford

    Nancy Reagan

    Michelle Obama


12.5 Presidential Governance: Direct Presidential Action

Domestic Policy

    Recess Appointments

    Pardon Power

    Executive Orders

    Line-Item Veto

        **Still available if the President threatens a veto**

    Signing Statements

National Security, Foreign Policy and War

    Increased Power of the Presidency

    Executive Agreements

Power of Persuasion

Opportunity and Legacy

    Rally Around the Flag Effect

    Lack of Control Over Legacy   




Chapter 13The Courts


13.1 Guardians of the Constitution and Individual Rights


    Original (Trial Courts)

    Appellate (Appeals Courts)

Humble Beginnings

    "Least Dangerous Branch"

    Slow accumulation of power

    John Marshall

        Marbury v. Madison (1803)

The Courts and Public Policy

    Common Law

    Various Controversies

Courts as a Last Resort

    **Footnote 4 of US v. Carolene Products (1938)**


13.2 The Dual Court System

**Concurrent Jurisdiction**

Courts and Federalism

    Criminal Law

    Civil Law

    State v. Federal Jurisdiction

Implications of a Dual Court System

    Clashes Between State and Federal Law (Marijuana)


13.3 The Federal Court System

The Three Tiers of Federal Courts

    District Courts

        Trial Courts of the Federal System

        **Role of the U.S. Attorneys**

    Circuit Courts

        11 numerated + DC + Federal

    Supreme Court

    stare decisis

Selection of Judges

    Senatorial Courtesy

    Supreme Court appointments


13.4 The Supreme Court

The Structure of the Court

    1 Chief, 8 Associates

        Clarence Thomas (George HW Bush)

        Samuel Alito (George W Bush)

        Brett Kavanaugh (Donald Trump)

        Neil Gorsuch (Donald Trump)

        Chief John Roberts (George W Bush)

        Stephen Breyer (Bill Clinton)

        Elena Kagan (Barack Obama)

        Ruth Bader Ginsburg (Bill Clinton)

        Sonia Sotomayor (Barack Obama)

    Law Clerks and their Role

How the Supreme Court Selects Cases

    **The Judges' Bill of 1925**

    The Docket

    Writ of Certiorari

    Rule of Four

    What makes a case cert-worthy?

    **The cert-pool**

    Role of the Solicitor General

Supreme Court Procedures

    Filing Briefs

        amicus curiae briefs

    Oral Arguments

    The Conference


13.5 Judicial Decision-Making and Implementation by the Supreme Court

Judicial Opinions




Influences on the Court

    Judicial Activism v. Restraint

    Personal Beliefs and Attitudes

    Public Opinion

    **Other Justices**

The Courts and Other Branches of Government

    The Presidency

        FDR's Court-packing Scheme

        Enforcement Power




Also: Be prepared to answer questions about any articles assigned since the last test.




NOTE: Double asterisks indicate items not covered in the text that I still want you to know.