Study Sheet for Test 2


Chapter 4--Civil Liberties


4.1 What are Civil Liberties?

    Civil Liberties v. Civil Rights

        Relevance of the Declaration and Locke

    Civil Liberties and the Constituion

        Japanese Internment

        Federalist arguments against the Bill of Rights

    Extension of Bill of Rights to the States (Incorporation)

        14th Amendment

            Privileges and Immunities Clause

                **Total Incorporation?**

                **Slaughterhouse Cases (1873)**

            Due Process Clause

                **Substantive Due Process**

                Selective Incorporation


4.2 Securing Basic Freedoms

    The First Amendment

        The Establishment Clause

            **Everson v. Board of Education (1947)**

            Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971)

                The Lemon Test

                    ** "Mechanical Jurisprudence" **

                    **Budget reallocations, rendering the Lemon Test meaningless?**

            "Ceremonial Deism"

        The Free Exercise Clause

           Can religion trump general laws?

                Sherbert v. Viner (1963) and Wisconsin v. Yoder (1972)

                    Religion is a "suspect class" so the three part test of strict scrutiny is triggered--here called the Sherbert Test

                    Employment Division v. Smith (1990)

                    Religious Freedom Restoration Act (RFRA)  and State level RFRAs

                    Burwell v. Hobby Lobby (2014)

        Freedom of Expression

            Free Speech

                Schenck v. United States (1919)

                    Clear and Present Danger Test

                **Gitlow v. New York (1925)**

                Brandenburg v. Ohio (1969)

                    Imminent Lawless Action Standard

                Symbolic Speech

                    Texas v. Johnson (1989)

            Free Press

                Prior Restraint

                    Near v. Minnesota (1931)

                    Pentagon Papers case (1971)


                    New York Times v. Sullivan (1964)

                        **"Actual Malice" Standard**


                Miller v. California (1973)

            Student Speech

                Tinker v. Des Moines (1969)

                Hazlewood v. Kuhlmeier (1988)


    The Second Amendment

        Individual Right or for Militias?

            United States v. Cruikshank (1876)

            District of Columbia v. Heller (2008)

            McDonald v. Chicago (2010)


    The Third Amendment


    The Fourth Amendment

        Search Warrants

            Probable Cause

            "Reasonable Expectation of Privacy"

        The Exclusionary Rule

            "Fruit of a Poisoned Tree"

            Weeks v. United States (1914)

            Mapp v. Ohio (1961)

                Good Faith Errors, other exceptions



4.3 The Rights of Suspects

    The Fifth Amendment

        Grand Juries

        Double Jeopardy

        Ways around Double Jeopardy

            Federal or State

            Criminal Law **(Beyond a Reasonable Doubt)** or Civil Law **(Preponderance of the Evidence)**

        Self Incrimination

            Miranda v. Arizona (1966)

        Takings Clause

            Eminent Domain

            Kelo v. New London (2005)


    The Sixth Amendment

        Speedy Trial

        Plea Bargains

        Jury Selection


        Right to Counsel

            Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)


    The Seventh Amendment

        Right to Jury Trial

        Judges decide law, juries decide fact


    The Eighth Amendment

        Bail--how it works, what it is

        Cruel and Unusual Punishment

            **Evolving Standard of Decency**


4.4 Interpreting the Bill of Rights

   The Ninth Amendment

        Common Law rights

            **What is Common Law?, Common Law v. Code Law**


    The Tenth Amendment

        States can exceed but not contradict the federal government when extending civil liberties

    Right to Privacy

        Brandeis and Warren Article (1890)

        Griswold v. Connecticut (1965)

            ** "Penumbras and Emanations" **

            Sexual Privacy       


                    Roe v. Wade (1973)

                    Planned Parenthood v. Casey (1992)

                Sodomy Laws

                    **Bowers v. Hardwick (1986)**

                    Lawrence v. Texas (2003)

            Privacy of Communications and Property


                USA PATRIOT Act




Chapter 5--Civil Rights


5.1 What Are Civil Rights and How Do We Identify Them?

    Defining Civil Rights

        Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment

        Identifying Discrimination

            **Discrimination is the creation of classes**

            **Suspect Class**

            Rational Basis (not a suspect class)

                Is the act of discrimination "rationally related to government interest"?

                **Burden of Proof on the class being discriminated against**

            Strict Scrutiny

                **Triggered by Suspect Class**

                    Race, Religion, Ethnicity, National Origin

                    Burden of Proof is on the discriminator (the government)

                    **"Strict in Theory, Fatal in Fact"**

                    1. Compelling Government Interest

                    2. Narrowly Tailored

                    3. Least Restrictive Means

                        Affirmative Action (though this is treated in section 5.2, I'm putting the cases here)

                            Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978)

                                Diversity, no Quotas

                            University of Michigan Cases (2003)

            Intermediate Scrutiny

                **Reed v. Reed (1971)**

                Craig v. Boren (1976)

                    Burden of Proof on the Government

                        Unequal treatment must be "substantially related to an important government objective"


5.2 African American Struggle for Equality

    Slavery and the Civil War

        Ambiguity of the Constitution

        Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857)

    Reconstruction and Its End

        Literacy Tests

        Understanding Tests

        Grandfather Clauses

        Poll Taxes

        White Primaries

    Civil Rights in the Courts

        Brown v. Board of Education (1954)

        Grass Roots Activism

    Legislating Civil Rights

        SNCC, SCLC, CORE, other civil rights groups

            Civil Disobedience

        Civil Rights Act of 1964

            Deals with non-governmental discrimination

            **Upheld in Heart of Atlanta v. United States (1964)**

                **Commerce Clause**

            Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)

    Continuing Challenges

        De Jure v. De Facto segregation


5.3 The Fight for Women's Rights

    The Early Women's Rights Movement and Women's Sufferage


        Lack of Voting Rights

        1848 Seneca Falls Convention

        Passage of the 19th Amendment in 1920

    Equal Rights Amendment

        First introduced in 1923

        Officially Proposed in 1972

        Fails to get Ratified

    Continuing Challenges

        Abortion Access

        Sexual Harassment and Sexual Assault

        Pay Disparity

            Comparable Worth


5.4 Civil Rights for Indigenous Groups

    Native Americans Lose Their Land and Rights

        Indian Removal Act (1830)

        Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831)

        Worcester v. Georgia (1832)

            Jackson's refusal to enforce

            "Trail of Tears"

        Dawes Severalty Act (1887)

    Fight for Native American Rights

        Indian Citizenship Act (1924)

        Indian Reorganization Act (1934)

        Radicalism in the 60s and 70s

        Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (1975)

            Legalized gambling, casinos, etc.


5.5 Equal Protection of Other Groups

    Hispanic/Latino Rights

        Original Incorporation through Annexation

        Bracero program

        Mendez v. Westminster (1947)

        "Operation Wetback"

        Cesar Chavez, United Farm Workers, 1962

        Immigration debates


    Asian Americans

        Chinese Exclusion Act (1886)

        Immigration Act of 1924 bans all Asians except Filipinos

        Executive Order 9066--Japanese Internment (110,000 internees)

            Korematsu v. United States (1944)--1986 law gave $20,000 to survivors plus apology

        Affirmative Action?

    LGBT Community

        The Closet

        Mattachine Society, Daughters of Bilitis

        Stonewall Riot (1969)

        1973, DSM reclassification

        Lawrence v. Texas (2003)

        Obergefell v. Hodges (2015)

    Disabled Americans


        Buck v. Bell (1927)

        Americans With Disabilities Act (1990)

    Religious Minorities







NOTE: Double asterisks indicate items not covered in the text that I still want you to know.