Study Sheet for Test Four


Chapter 11: The Federal Court System


Section 1: Authority of the Federal Courts

Jurisdiction of the Courts

    Federal Court Jurisdiction

        Various Ways to Get Into the Federal System

        Concurrent Jurisdiction

        Original and Appellate Jurisdiction

Developing Supreme Court Power

    Early Precedents

    John Marshall's Influence

    States' Rights Era

Due Process

    Importance of the Due Process Clause


Section 2: Lower Federal Courts

Constitutional Courts

    Federal District Courts

        Grand Jury


        Petit Jury

    Officers of the Court

    Federal Courts of Appeals

        Circuit Courts

    The Court of International Trade

Legislative Courts

    What are they?  How do they differ from Constitutional Courts?

Selection of Federal Judges

    Party Affiliation

    Judicial Philosophy

    Senatorial Courtesy

    The Background of Federal Judges


Section 3: The Supreme Court

Supreme Court Jurisdiction


Supreme Court Justices

    Duties of the Justices

    Law Clerks

    Background of the Justices

Appointing Justices   

    The Role of the ABA

    The Role of Other Interest Groups

    The Role of the Justices


Chapter 12: Supreme Court Decision Making


Section 1: The Supreme Court at Work

Tools for Shaping Policy

    Judicial Review

    Interpretations of Laws

    Overturning Earlier Decisions

        stare decisis


Limits on the Supreme Court

    Limits on Types of Issues

    Limits on Types of Cases

    Limited Control Over Agenda

    Lack of Enforcement Power

    Checks and Balances


Section 2: Supreme Court Decisions and Public Policy

How Cases Reach the Court

    On Appeal

    Writ of Certiorari

    Selecting Cases

        per curiam opinion

Steps in Deciding Major Cases

    Submitting Briefs

        amicus curiae briefs

    Oral Arguments

    The Conference

    Writing the Opinion

        Unanimous Opinion

        Majority Opinion

        Concurring Opinion

        Dissenting Opinion


Section 3: Factors Influencing the Court's Decisions

Basing Decisions on the Law

Views of the Justices

    Voting Blocks

Relations Among the Justices

    Harmony or Conflict

    Influence of the Chief Justice

The Court and Society

    Concern for Public Support

    Influence of Social Forces

Balancing the Court's Power

    The President's Influence

    The Influence of Congress


Chapter 13: Constitutional Freedoms


Section 1: Constitutional Rights

Constitutional Rights

    Selective Incorporation

    The Fourteenth Amendment

        Gitlow v. New York (1925)

        Importance of Incorporation


Section 2: Freedom of Religion

The Establishment Clause

    Religion in Public Life

    Everson v. BOE (1947)

    State Aid to Parochial Schools

        BOE v. Allen (1968)

        Three provisos for State Aid to Religious Institutions--the Lemon Test in Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971)

        Meek v. Pittinger (1975)

        Wolman v. Walter (1977)

    Release Time

    Engel v. Vitale (1962)

    Other School Prayer Cases

        Abington School District v. Schempp and Murray v. Curlett

        Santa Fe Independent School District v. Doe (2000)

    The Equal Access Act

    Evolution and Creation

        Epperson v. Arkansas (1968)

        Edwards v. Aguillard (1987)

    Other Establishment Issues

        Nativity Scenes (Lynch and Pittsburg cases)

        Prayers in Legislatures (Marsh)

The Free Exercise Clause

    Limitations on Religion

        Reynolds v. US (1879)

        Jacobsen v. Massachusetts (1905)

        Oregon v. Smith (1990)

        Religious Freedom Restoration Act and City of Boerne

        But religion upheld in Wisconsin v. Yoder (1972)


Don't worry about the flag salute cases.


Section 3: Freedom of Speech

Types of Speech

    Pure Speech

    Symbolic Speech

    United States v. O'Brien (1968)

Regulating Speech

    Clear and Present Danger Doctrine

        Schenck v. US (1919)

    The Bad Tendency Doctrine

        Gitlow v. NY (1925) also selectively incorporates free speech to the states.

        Whitney v. CA (1927) (described on p. 382 as a freedom of association case)

    The Preferred Position Doctrine

        Murdock v. PA (1943) (Not in the book, but you should know it)

    Sedition Laws

        Dennis, Yates, and Brandenburg Decisions

Other Unprotected Speech

    Defamatory Speech

        Slander, libel

    "Fighting Words"

        Chaplinsky v. NH (1942)

    Student Speech

        Tinker, Bethel and Hazelwood Decisions


Section 4: Freedom of the Press

Prior Restrain Forbidden

    Near v. Minnesota

    The Pentagon Papers

        New York Times Company v. US (1971)

Free Press and Fair Trials

    Pretrial and Courtroom Publicity

        Sheppard v. Maxwell (1966)

    Unconstitutionality of Gag Orders

    Exclusion from Court

    Protecting Sources

        Shield Laws

Free Press Issues

    The Federal Communications Commission (FCC)

    Motion Pictures

    E-Mail and the Internet



Section 5: Freedom of Assembly

Protecting Freedom of Assembly

    DeJonge v. Oregon (1937)

    Assembly on Public Property

    Limits on Parades and Demonstration

        Cox v. NH (1941)

        Adderly v. Florida (1966)

        Cox v. Louisiana (1965)

        Grayned v. City of Rockford (1972)

        Police Department of Chicago v. Mosley (1972)

    Assembly and Property Rights

        Lloyd Corporation v. Tanner (1972)

Public Assembly and Disorder

    Nazis in Skokie

        "The Heckler's Veto"

    Irving Feiner

        Feiner v. NY (1951)

    Protection of Peaceful Demonstrations

        Gregory v. Chicago (1969)


Don't worry about picketing law





ALSO:  Know all articles assigned since the last test.