Study Sheet for Test Five

Chapter 14: Citizenship and Equal Justice


Section 1: A Nation of Immigrants

Immigrants and Aliens

    Classifying Aliens

        Resident Aliens

        Enemy Aliens


        Illegal Aliens

    Aliens' Rights

Immigration Policy

    1882-1924: The Growth of Restrictions

    1924-1965: National Origins Quotas

    Immigration Policy 1965-1990

Recent Changes in Immigration

    Changes in Origin

    Education and Skills

    Special Immigrants

        Private Laws


Section 2: The Basis for United States Citizenship

National Citizenship

    The Dred Scott Case

    The 14th Amendment

Citizenship by Birth

    Jus Soli

    Jus Sanguinis

Citizenship by Nationalization

    Qualifications for Citizenship

Steps to Citizenship


Losing Citizenship


    Punishment for a Crime



don't worry about the section on responsibilities of citizens


Section 3: The Rights of the Accused

Searches and Seizures (Fourth Amendment)

    Payton v. NY (1980)

    Special Situations (understand the concept, but no need to memorize these cases)

    The Exclusionary Rule

        Weeks v. United States (1914)

        Mapp v. Ohio (1961)

    Relaxing the Exclusionary Rule

        US v. Leon (1984)

        Nix v. Williams (1984)

    Fourth Amendment in High Schools

        New Jersey v. T.L.O. (1985)

        Vernonia School District 47J v. Acton (1995)

    Wiretapping and Electronic Eavesdropping

        Olmstead v. US (1928)

        Katz v. US (1967)

    Congress and Wiretaps

        The Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act (1968)

        The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (1978)

Guarantee of Counsel

    Early Rulings

        Powell v. Alabama (1932)

        Betts v. Brady (1942)

    Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)

Self-Incrimination (Fifth Amendment)

    Escobedo v. Illinois (1964)

    Miranda v. Arizona (1966)

    Limits on Miranda: (Elstad, Braswell and Fulminante)

Double Jeopardy

    Palko v. Connecticut (1937)

    Benton v. Maryland (1969)


Cruel and Unusual Punishment

    Furman v. Georgia (1972)

    Woodson v. North Carolina (1976)

    Gregg v. Georgia (1976)


Section 4: Equal Protection of the Law

Meaning of Equal Protection

    The Rational Basis Test

        Wisconsin v. Mitchell (1993)

    Suspect Classifications

        "Strict Judicial Scrutiny"

    Fundamental Rights

Proving Intent to Discriminate

    Showing Intent to Discriminate

        Washington v. Davis (1976)

The Struggle for Equal Rights

    Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)

    Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954)

New Civil Rights Laws

    The Civil Rights Act of 1964


Section 5: New Challenges for Civil Liberties

Affirmative Action

    Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978)

    Grutter v. Bollinger (2003) and Gratz v. Bollinger (2003)

Discrimination Against Women

    The Supreme Court's Position

    Reed v. Reed (1971)

    Reasonableness Standard

    Congressional Action

        The Civil Rights Act of 1964

        The Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1974

Citizens' Right to Know

    The Freedom of Information Act

    The Sunshine Act

Citizens' Right to Privacy

    Griswold v. Connecticut (1965)

        "penumbras and emanations"

    Internet Issues



Chapter 15: Law


Section 1: Sources of American Law

Early Systems of Law

Our Legal Heritage

    Constitutional Law

    Statutory Law

    Administrative Law

    Common Law


Legal System Principles

    Equal Justice Under the Law

    Due Process of Law

        Substantive Due Process

        Procedural Due Process

    The Adversary System

    Presumption of Innocence


Section 2: Civil Law

Types Civil Law


    Property Law

    Family Law

    Torts and Civil Wrongs

Steps in Civil Case

    Hiring a Lawyer

    Filing the Complaint

    Pretrial Discovery

    Resolution Without Trial

    The Award

Small Claims Court


Section 3: Criminal Law

Types of Crime

    Petty Offenses



Steps in Criminal Cases

    Investigation and Arrest

    Initial Appearance

    Preliminary Hearing or Grand Jury

    Plea Bargaining

    Arraignment and Pleas

    The Trial

    The Decision



Chapter 16: Development of Political Parties


Section 1: Parties and Party Systems

Parties and Party Systems

    One Party Systems

    Multiparty Systems

    Two-Party Systems

Growth of American Politics

    Parties Before the Civil War

    Parties After the Civil War

    Parties in the Great Depression and After

The Role of Minor Parties

    Types of Third Parties




    The Impact of Third Parties

    Obstacles to Third Parties

        Single Member Districts

        Proportional Representation


Section 2: Party Organization

Membership and Organization

    Party Membership

    Local Party Organization



    State Party Organization

    National Party Organization

Political Party Functions

    Recruiting Candidates

    Educating the Public

    Operating the Government

    Dispensing Patronage

    The Loyal Opposition

    Reduction of Conflict


Section 3: Nominating Candidates

How Candidates Are Selected


    Nominating Conventions

    Primary Elections

        Direct Primary

        Open and Closed Primaries




Presidential Nominations

    The History of Presidential Nominations

    Presidential Primaries Today

    Criticisms of Presidential Primaries

The National Convention

    Pre-Convention Planning

    Assembling the Convention

    Rules Committee

    Credentials Committee

    Committee on Permanent Organization

    Platform Committee

    Nominating the Candidates

    The Vice-Presidential Nomination






Please know all articles and other readings assigned since the last test.  Good luck!